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细密机械加工的方法和优势
阅读次数:412  更新时间:2020-07-21

机械制造技术从提高精度和生产率两个方面迅速发展,就提高生产率而言,提高自动化程度是各国致力发展的方向。近年来,细密零件加工从CNC向CIMS快速发展,并在一定范围内从提高精度方面,从细密加工到超细密加工得到了应用,这也是世界主要发达国家的发展方向。

(1 )细密机(ji)械加工方(fang)法

根(gen)据(ju)加(jia)工(gong)方(fang)法的机理和特(te)点(dian),细(xi)密加(jia)工(gong)可分为刀(dao)具切削加(jia)工(gong),磨料加(jia)工(gong),特(te)种加(jia)工(gong)和复合加(jia)工(gong)四大类

随着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)技术(shu)的(de)发展,出现了(le)许多新的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)机理(li),因(yin)此在(zai)细密零件(jian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),特别是(shi)在(zai)微细加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中,根据零件(jian)成(cheng)形机理(li)和(he)特点,分(fen)为(wei)去(qu)除(chu)(chu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)、结合加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)变形加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)三大类,去(qu)除(chu)(chu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)又称为(wei)分(fen)离加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),是(shi)利用力、热电(dian)光等加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)方法(fa)从工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)去(qu)除(chu)(chu)部分(fen)材料,如(ru)切削、磨削、电(dian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)等。结合加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)是(shi)利用理(li)化方法(fa)在(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)表面(mian)上附(fu)着(zhe)沉积注人(ren)渗入、熔接一层不同材料,如(ru)电(dian)镀、气相沉积、氧化、渗碳,粘接、熔接等,变形加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)是(shi)利用力、热、分(fen)子运动等手段使工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)产生变形,改变其尺(chi)寸、形状和(he)性能,如(ru)铸(zhu)造、锻压(ya)等,可见加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)概念已突破(po)传统(tong)的(de)去(qu)除(chu)(chu)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)手段,具有(you)堆积、生长(zhang)、变形等特色,同时强调了(le)表面(mian)处理(li),形成(cheng)了(le)表面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)技术(shu)。

( 2 )细(xi)密机械加工的技术(shu)和工艺优势

细密(mi)机(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)与无房工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)相比,切(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)优点(dian)首先在于,既有很(hen)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)材料(liao)切(qie)除(chu)率(lv),又有良(liang)好的(de)(de)(de)经济性,与激光(guang)等离子加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)相比,这种工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)目前只有供应(ying)很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)(neng)量,才(cai)能(neng)(neng)(neng)达到(dao)较(jiao)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)材料(liao)切(qie)除(chu)率(lv)。另一(yi)方面,加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件能(neng)(neng)(neng)否达到(dao)尺寸(cun)和(he)形(xing)(xing)状精度(du)要(yao)求尚存问(wen)题,无屑(xie)压力加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)主要(yao)用于大(da)批生(sheng)产,往往需要(yao)后序(xu)切(qie)削(xue)(xue)(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),以(yi)获得合(he)格的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件形(xing)(xing)状,因此(ci)机(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)优点(dian)是能(neng)(neng)(neng)使(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件达到(dao)较(jiao)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)精度(du),细密(mi)机(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)用广(guang)泛(fan),特别是伴(ban)随小批量生(sheng)产发(fa)展(zhan)趋势,对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)状和(he)尺寸(cun)精度(du)要(yao)求越来越高(gao),为细密(mi)机(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)开辟了新的(de)(de)(de)更加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)广(guang)泛(fan)的(de)(de)(de)领域。使(shi)用车(che)床自然(ran)要(yao)进行各(ge)种车(che)削(xue)(xue)(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),但还应(ying)注意到(dao),钻削(xue)(xue)(xue)、铁削(xue)(xue)(xue)、魔削(xue)(xue)(xue)以(yi)及切(qie)步等加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)过程都可(ke)集中在一(yi)台车(che)床上完成(工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)集成)的(de)(de)(de)趋势,这就是现在发(fa)展(zhan)起来的(de)(de)(de)车(che)铣加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)地点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)复(fu)合(he)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)方法(fa)。

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